Τη γλώσσα μου έδωσαν Ελληνική
Το σπίτι φτωχικό στις αμμουδιές του Ομήρου.
Μονάχη έγνοια η γλώσσα μου στις αμμουδιές του Ομήρου.
Visit of Prof. George Babiniotis , President of the Hellenic Foundation for Culture, and Greek Independence Day Celebration
Prometheas invited Prof. George Babiniotis, former Provost of the National and Capodistrian University of Athens, to be the keynote speaker at the Washington metropolitan community’s Greek Independence Day celebration on March 25. It was a special honor for our Society in particular and the Washington community in general, because this was the second time in less than a decade that Prof. Babiniotis has accepted our invitation. During his visit Prof. Babiniotis gave two additional public lectures and participated at several events sponsored by the Greek Embassy, Prometheas, and other organizations.
This year’s Greek Independence Day celebration was dedicated to the legendary Secret School (Κρυφό Σχολειό). In many Greek communities this was the only place to learn Greek and practice the Orthodox religion during the long Turkish occupation. The significance of the Secret Schools in keeping the Greek spirit alive during four centuries of oppression cannot be overstated. Several leaders of the revolution, Makriyiannis and Kolokotronis among others, have mentioned the significance of the School in their postwar memoirs.
The celebration of the 186th anniversary of the Greek Revolution of 1821 was held at the St. George Greek Orthodox Church’s Grand Hall and was widely agreed to have been a great success. Master of ceremonies of this well-attended (over 400 participants, including representatives of the Hellenic Armed Forces) was the talented Mrs. Despina Fourniades. After the presentation of colors by 30 students from three parochial schools and the opening prayer by the Rev. Dimitrios Antokas of St. George, the national anthems of Greece and the US were sung by the St. Sophia Cathedral’s choir.
Prior to Prof. Babiniotis’s keynote address, Mr. Lefteris Karmiris, Prometheas’ president, and the Greek Ambassador, H.E. Mr. Alexandros Mallias, attending with his wife, greeted the assembly.
After Prof. Babiniotis’s speech, the poem dedicated to Kryfo Scholeio and written by Ioannis Polemis in 1899 was recited by Mr. Pericles Stabekis, the Saint Sophia Coir sang a couple of traditional songs and chanted two hymns, and at the end one of the Return to Origins troupes, directed by Rena and Elena Papapostolou, performed their electrifying Greek dances.
In addition to Prometheas, the event was co-sponsored by all Greek Orthodox churches of the Washington area, the American Hellenic Institute, AHEPA Chapters 31, 383, and 438, the Kazantzakis chapter of the Cretan Association of Greater Wash. D.C., the Evrytanian Association, the Hellenic-American Women’s Council, the Hellenic-American Medical Society, the Laconian Society, the Macedonian Association, the Pan-Cyprians of Metropolitan Washington, the Pan-Dodecanesian Association of America, the Roumeliotes of Metropolitan Washington, the Digenis Hellenic Student Association at the University of Maryland, the Association of Greek Scientists at NIH, the Georgetown University Hellenic Club, the Kosmos Hellenic Club at George Washington University, the Return to Origins dance ensemble, and the Hellenic Center.
Prof. Babiniotis’s speech. In this year’s celebration, the keynote speech on “Language as National Identity: Reflections on the Occasion of March 25th, 1821” focused on the fundamental and complex role of the language at the time of the revolution as well as its role today. In the years before 1821, language was one of the key elements for distinguishing Greeks from Ottomans and their subjugated peoples. Greeks at all levels, from the peasants to the Phanariots, in Hellenic communities all over the mainland as well as in the Eastern Mediterranean and in Europe, intimately understood the value of language.
In each region or town, strenuous efforts took place to find and recruit teachers. The few educated people, such as monks and priests, filled in and tried to teach. Schools were organized, mostly in the form of Kryfo Scholeio and later in some urban settings, as larger entities, such as the Great School of the Nation (Μεγάλη του Γένους Σχολή) in Constantinople. The schools were funded either locally or through endowments made possible by wealthy Greek merchants and businessmen, immigrants in Western Europe and Russia. The professor gave examples of the ways in which Greeks identified with the language, and how this identification was validated by non-Hellenes.
At several places in his talk, Prof. Babiniotis pointed out the similarities between those historic communities threatened to be deprived of their language and customs during the Turkocracy, and today’s Greek communities abroad, aspiring for and implementing an organized, stronger presence of the Greek culture. As is evident here in Washington, as well as in many other places, Greeks invite teachers and scholars to continue the dialogue with the past and obtain guidance about the future.
The Hellenic Foundation for Culture (http://www.hfc.gr), an institution founded in 1994 and now headed by Prof. Babiniotis, has as its mission of actively promoting both the traditional and modern Hellenic culture all over the globe. Based in Athens and with branches in many European countries, including the Balkans, as well as in North America and Australia, the Foundation systematically creates language classes, seminars and lectures, art exhibits, and cultural exchanges. These services are open to all interested in the Greek tradition, culture, and language.
Another report on the Greek Independence Day Celebration can be found in the following web site: http://www.hellotia.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1065&Itemid=74
The article is written by Ms. Yvonne Montesantos, the sister of our own Farther Dimitrios of St George Orthodox Church, Bethesda, MD.
Also, an article from Kathemerini Newspaper is attached.
Drexel adds Greek Studies Program
Drexel University of Philadelphia, PA established a Greek Studies Program. Dr. Maria Hnaraki, Director of the Program, aims to develop an integrated, holistic approach to Greek Studies which will include teaching of language and Greek culture. The program was established with a one-million dollar donation by the Vidalakis Family Foundation. Dr. Constantine ("Taki") Papadakis is President of Drexel University since 1995.
“Mediterranean Quarterly: A Journal of Global Impact”
Date: 12 March 2007
The editor of Mediterranean Quarterly, Dr. Nikolaos A. Stavrou, expressed his appreciation to its readers and his warm thanks to his associates and the founder of M.Q. Minos X. Kyriakou, for making possible the growing global impact of a journal that is currently in its 18th year of continuous publication by Duke University Press.
For the year 2006, Dr. Stavrou noted, 302 world known universities in over forty countries, ranging from England’s Oxford and Cambridge to Melbourne's and Ankara's National Universities and every Ivy League institution, have subscribed to the Magazine. Specifically, during 2006 a total of 41,656 readers have used entire articles from the Journal via its electronic version through MUSE project (Johns Hopkins University) and High Wire Service of Duke Press. That is above and beyond hard copy circulation.
The Managing Editor of the Mediterranean Quarterly, Ambassador Raymond C. Ewing, believes “the success of the journal is derived from the quality of content, its fairness and openness and the editor’s steadfast refusal to engage in any sort of self-imposed censorship in the name of political correctness.” For more information, please contact Ms. Justine Williams at (202) 662-7655.
Production Begins on Cyprus Documentary;
April 6, 2007 - Production has begun on a new documentary about a mostly forgotten linchpin of Middle East peace - the divided island of Cyprus.
Cyprus - a Mediterranean island nation divided 32 years ago by a Turkish invasion - holds a key to the solution of the War on Terrorism and the unrest in the Middle East. Largely forgotten except as perhaps a vacation spot or an evacuation site in the Israeli-Lebanese war of 2006, Cyprus continues to inflame the relationship of Greece and Turkey. It thereby limits Turkey's chances for membership in the European Union. That membership could establish Turkey as a key player in this part of the world, but without resolution - and specifically without U.S. involvement - this festering problem will continue to be a thorn in the side of peace in a region where the U.S. desperately needs help and stability.
Cyprus: Still Divided is being produced for national distribution in Fall 2007 by Veras Communications, Inc. (VCI) and presented on public TV by WTVS Detroit Public Television (DPTV). The documentary will seek real solutions and show the continued unrest and human suffering of those that were uprooted from their ancestral homes on both sides of the island.
As production continues, interview excerpts and blogging will be available at cyprusdivided.com. In addition to the documentary, a separate discussion representing a variety of expert viewpoints will be taped and made available for public television stations.
"Since the invasion of Cyprus in 1974 by Turkey, Cyprus and its capital city, Nicosia, have been divided by barbed wire and armed occupation forces," notes executive producer George Veras. "Today, the south is a vibrant democracy and a valued member of the European Union, while the north is an impoverished and unrecognized non-state controlled by 40,000 Turkish troops. After three decades of behind-the-scenes talks with no resolution, this issue has disappeared from the American consciousness, but it is well known as a major problem in the world diplomatic community. It is time to put the spotlight back on Cyprus as a way to break the log jam."
"We will examine elements of history such as why the United States and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger did not push for removal of Turkish troops when the crisis erupted in 1974 and bring the story to the present, looking at why 40,000 Turkish troops remain. This is not about Turkey vs. Cyprus, but rather why after more than three decades the issue remains unresolved and now, how it is undermining U.S. efforts in the Middle East."
By Diane Shugart, Odyssey Magazine
A window to heaven; to see the difference between Western and Eastern Christianity, visit a church. In the Catholic house of worship, the dominant figure is Christ nailed to the cross; in the Orthodox, you're greeted by a benevolent Pantokrator peering down from the dome. Diane Shugart talks to Steve Papadatos, one of the foremost church architects, about the grammar of Byzantine architecture and the new Orthodox cathedral he's designing in Tirana.
Steve Papadatos cuts a dapper figure amid the rush of passengers in the cavernous departure hall of Athens International Airport where we meet on a Sunday morning. He's en route back to New York after a quick trip to Tirana to check on construction at the Great Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ in the Albanian capital. It's a large-scale project, a complex that includes a conference center, museum, Synod building, and offices of the Orthodox Autocephalous Church of Albania. But the centerpiece is the cathedral itself, a building that inspires awe even on the drawing board and which Archbishop Anastasios has described as "the Orthodox Church for the new century."
The cathedral is designed by Papadatos Partnership LLP, which won an international competition for the design in a field of nine other architectural firms, including two acclaimed Greek architects. Despite having scores of projects-from churches, banks, and office buildings to residences and tunnel walls-Papadatos says the Tirana cathedral is very close to his heart because "I had the opportunity to be very creative in taking a true Byzantine traditional design and converting it into a modern design...And because it was a competition, I submitted the design I wanted and figured, if I win, I win."
Anastasios was thrilled at the design-the competition was judged by a prestigious jury that included the president of the University of Thessaloniki-but came under fire from his fellow clergymen because, as Papadatos says, "it's different; it's not five rows of brick, five rows of stone. Yes, it's not your typical Byzantine church it, it's a modern version of it, and has all the lines of Haghia Sophia."
Construction on the Tirana cathedral complex, which occupies an entire block, began last June and is expected to be completed in two years, although the first services will be able to be held once the first shelf is up. Unlike the cruciform structure associated with Byzantine churches, the Tirana cathedral is round, a form, Papadatos notes, that suggests life is continuous. Atop the cathedral sits a cross-shaped glass dome that allows communicants to see the sky-looking up and seeing the Heavens is quite inspirational, Papadatos notes-and also allows natural light into the cathedral's interior. The Pantokrator will be laid in mosaics at the center of the dome's quadrants, which represent the four Evangelists. German specialists have been enlisted for the triple-glazed glass dome, which will be given a barely perceptible blue tint and have a thin membrane of onyx laminated between the safety glass to symbolize the meeting of Heaven and Earth.
"During the Early Christian period, no real elements of Byzantine architecture as we know it today existed. Original places of worship were homes where people gathered and prayed, later existing buildings were converted for prayer," says Papadatos discussing the basic elements of Byzantine architecture. "During the persecutions in Rome, the faithful conducted worship in Catacombs so there wasn't any basic elements at the beginning."
The basic shape associated with Byzantine churches is cruciform: a cross superimposed over a square with four arms of equal length, although this varies greatly according to the church's size and the architect's design. The first churches built after Rome recognized Christianity in 313 followed the rectangular basilica typical of Roman public buildings-a form that was subsequently elaborated with the addition of extensions or atriums and, later, in the sixth century, with a more centralized structure with the addition of embellishments such as domed bays. But while technology has made it possible to introduce design refinements such as thinner walls or structural stable arches and vaults, the basic form of the Orthodox church has remained unchanged. "The most significant design development in Byzantine architecture was the dome, representing the Heavens. The construction of the dome was made possible by the development of pendentives that give the capabilities of supporting a round dome over a square base. Without this achievement in design, the construction of Haghia Sophia would have been impossible," says Papadatos.
Papadatos's career in architecture spans four decades. Licensed in fourteen states, he has lectured on architecture at universities, written a monthly column for McGraw-Hill, and sat on a commission to examine the effects of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing with an eye to upgrading the New York City building code. But designing churches gives him special satisfaction, perhaps because growing up he had found himself drawn in two directions: architecture and the priesthood. "Architecture won out," he says with an innate modesty and humility that belies the sweeping splendor of his designs. "This way it's the same as being a priest: I build the buildings that priests use to save the soul."
It's perhaps this other calling that he felt early in life which he draws on when designing houses of worship, whether Tirana's new Orthodox cathedral, the Cathedral of Ascension in Caracas, Venezuela, the St. Nicholas Russian Orthodox Church in New York, or even the Sephardic Congregation and Center in Forest Hills, New York. In terms of basic design, churches are public buildings similar to assembly halls, schools, and theaters. But the difference between these buildings and a church, Papadatos notes, is that "a church is God's house. The design for a church must represent the gift God has given to us. How is this translated into design? It is often the difference of a mystical ambience, or a space leaving someone cold and empty."
He adds that to create the mystical feeling, the architect "must understand and relate to God, the architect must possess in his heart God's love, otherwise it is impossible to convey this feeling into form for others to pray. Good architecture is a very complicated science and art, it's like music, it creates feelings good or bad. The greatest compliment ever received was from a non-believer, who walked into a church I designed, and told me 'there must be something else in life'."
But having faith isn't enough: it's important to understand the differences between faiths as the design of any religious structure must take that faith's worship rituals into consideration. "For example, in the Orthodox Church, provisions must be made to conduct a procession around the Church, the Baptismal Font and Sacristy Sink empties into a separate drywell avoiding mixing with sewage. Lighting design must be designed to also accommodate the various services," says Papadatos.
"When designing a mosque, again the worship rituals shapes the architecture, women and men have separate entrances into the mosque. Women are always situated behind the men's section in the prayer hall and typically separated by a barrier, or one way glass to separate both section. The space in front of the prayer hall is called Al-mihrab, it is where the Iman stands to give the prayers and sermon," he adds. "The general configuration of the mosque affects the site plan which must face towards Mecca. The dome in a mosque is not of religious significance, but is mainly for enhancing sound prior to modern sound systems. Today the dome is utilized strictly for aesthetic purposes."
Yet a church's design or structure doesn't just reflect practical needs related to worship rituals. Architecture has its own grammar that becomes emblematic not only of an aesthetic but what that symbolizes. Consider the stark interiors of Western churches and Western Christianity's doctrine of original sin compared to the warmer embrace of the interiors of Eastern churches and Orthodoxy's rejection of hereditary guilt. The colorful-at times, overwhelming-hagiography of the interiors of Orthodox churches also serves a more important purpose than providing decoration. It's also meant to enhance the religious experience by offering communicants images to which they can refer.
"If we were to compare Byzantine Architecture with Gothic Cathedrals, the most obvious difference is the exterior. Byzantine Churches are muted from the exterior, however, the interiors are highly ornate with colorful iconography describing in art, the history of the Church. Gothic Cathedrals, are the opposite, very ornate from the exterior, some with lacework type flying buttresses, and the interior is of cut stone, very elegant, again like lace work. The Gothic Cathedrals depend on interior color from large rose windows and other large openings, while Byzantine Architecture with its small window openings depend on iconography for the interior," says Papadatos. "In plan, the Byzantine churches-because of the Nave's configuration, except for the Basilica plans-tend to bring the faithful closer to the Solea and Altar. On the other hand, the nave of the Gothic cathedrals is long, creating a distance for the faithful to the Sanctuary."
The design of the Orthodox church does relate to a specific religious symbolism, Papadatos adds, offering as examples the dome as representing the Heavens and the Platytera as representing the Virgin Mary's womb.
"Numbers are also important for the design process," he notes. "Number One, represents one God. This could take shape as a dominant window above the Main Entry or another feature as determined by the Architect. Number Two represents Christ as both human and divine. Three represents the Holy Trinity, this could take shape as three doors, a group of three windows or three domes and so on. Four represents the Four Evangelists, again taking shape in Architectural Form on the pendentives. The Number Five represents the five wounds of Christ and again this can take shape with a group of five columns, designs in marble floors, etc. The Number Seven represents the seven sacraments of our Church and can be again used in the design as seven arches or columns or any other approach."
Symbolism and familiarity-"people get used to something in their own environment and feel safe"-means it's often possible to identify the faith to which a house of worship belongs by certain architectural elements-a Greek Orthodox church by the shape of its dome and arches, a Latin church by its Gothic architecture, a Russian church by its onion dome because, as Papadatos notes, we do associate shapes, colors, and sounds with specific elements and experiences.
"I do not think the Orthodox Church is open to much change. Since it is the first Church, the original Church, it is very pure. It is a Church that is over 2000 years old," he says. "As for the Protestants, their church was established in 1517, so it is difficult to make comparison. But the Catholic Church has made some very significant departures to its architecture, from the traditional Gothic architecture to modern architecture. One significant design is the Parish of Herz Jesu in Munich, built November 2000. The project was a result of a design competition with the submission of 158 entries. The winning entry was by architects Markus Allmann, Amandus Sattler, and Ludwig Wappner. If one of the traditionalists looks at the structure, the first comment will be 'that does not look like a church'. But in actuality, it looks like a box, but has the soul of a church. There was so much effort devoted to the management of light for the interior, that the space is spectacular. No one in the Orthodox Church would even consider praying in that space, but you can feel the presence of God because of the exceptional design approach."
Byzantine art evolved from ancient Greek art, albeit with a critical shift in focus from personal to religious expression. Artists compensated for the limitations on content by focusing instead on style and form. The result is a uniformity in the art produced during the Byzantine era but also a far greater depth and sophistication in application and technique. In similar vein, architecture also became focused on serving Christianity.
"In any great society, the emphasis is on religious expression; we see it in churches and cathedrals," says Papadatos, adding that the dearth of surviving private residences from this period makes it impossible to assess how Byzantine culture's preoccupation with religious themes affected the architecture of other buildings. "I would think since nothing is left, the private residence could not have been very significant as the Greek and Roman houses. The emphasis for public structures included bathhouses that followed Roman style and engineering. There appears to have been a lack of interest in theater as there were no amphitheaters constructed."
When examining an excavated site, archaeologists are often able to identify the type of building that once stood there by its foundations. By studying how settlements are oriented, they can also glean important clues about a culture or a civilization. But is it a society that defines its architecture or architecture that defines a society?
"Architecture does define a society, and in turn a society does shape the architecture. It's important to note that architecture is a reflection of societies. In the golden years of every civilization, architecture was the most important representation of society; great societies produced great art and architecture reflecting their society, in turn, interpreting their morality, economy, and respect for one another," Papadatos observes. "At present, each nation is a reflection of its self through their architecture. If the country is in conflict, architecture suffers. If a nation is prospering, not only in an economic sense, you will see inspirational architecture. The Greek Orthodox Church of America has a wonderful immediate opportunity, if they were to initiate an international design competition for St. Nicholas Church at Ground Zero. The design results would revitalize ecclesiastical architecture in the Americas and greatly benefit the Church as a whole from the standpoint of the Church and Society jointly defining the architecture for such a sacred project."
As societies evolve, so does the way each of them perceives and uses public spaces. Architecture responds to changes in lifestyle but also changes in the natural and physical environment and, Papadatos argues, architects have a professional and moral responsibility to incorporate these elements, for example respect for the environment, into their designs as well as to persuade their clients of the need to respond to such changes.
"The concept of 'grey water' was brought up to two communities, St. Iakovos in Valparaiso, Indiana, and St. Demetrios in Merrick, New York. Both priests and their entire communities embraced the concept and insist of having the grey water concept incorporated into their new projects. What this will do is collect rain water from the roofs and used to flush toilets and urinals and also used for landscape purposes. It becomes a great saving of water," he says. "There are some well-designed and beautiful public spaces, but what is changing today is that our churches are becoming the Agoras where the community's young and old go and meet in a safe environment. We are designing cultural centers with fireplaces, the entire design concept of the Sixties and Seventies of providing a box, as cheap as possible are gone. Today our cultural centers become the Agoras and learning centers of the Church, encouraging the youth to bring their friends 'to their church'."
By Diane Shugart
A Greek Philosopher In Spirit, a Masterful Physician in Practice
By Joe Holley
Washington Post Staff Writer
Sunday, March 11, 2007; C07
The year is 1950, and 10-year-old Billy Caludis has developed a raging mastoid infection that threatens deafness. Surgery immediately, doctors tell his parents, District residents who contemplate seeking a second opinion in a week or so.
"Wait a week," they are told, "and you might have a Greek angel on your hands."
That harrowing experience was Caludis's introduction to George Petropoulos, a skilled Greek doctor who wielded the scalpel at Suburban Hospital that day nearly 60 years ago and who saved not only Caludis's hearing but probably his life.
"He performed the operation in 45 minutes; usually it's a four- or five-hour operation," recalled Caludis, now 66. "He handled it masterfully."
Petropoulos became a lifelong friend. "He was the most remarkable man I've ever met," the Carderock resident said last week. "That man was absolutely brilliant."
Petropoulos's long life came to an end Feb. 16, at the same hospital where he operated on Caludis. At 96, he died of septicemia and complications of old age.
A longtime resident of Potomac (where a large addition to his hilltop house is a replica of the Parthenon), he left behind not only scores of grateful patients but also life lessons from a man who considered himself a physician to the soul as well as the body. Friends and family members treasured his gentle advice and piquant observations -- about diet and daily routine, the dangers of stress and anger, human relations, life's profound mysteries. His credo was: "Accept, forget and proceed."
"I believe Dad is a direct descendant of Socrates," his daughter, Chrissellene Petropoulos, said last week. "He thinks. He questions. He's curious. Here he is on his deathbed, and he's mentoring this young doctor."
George Peter Petropoulos was born in 1910 in a Spartan village, the 17th of 19 children. When he was 10, his parents insisted he drop out of school. The youngster protested by going on a hunger strike -- and staying resolute even when his mother made sure the sumptuous aroma of a roasting chicken wafted his way. His parents relented, allowing him to walk seven miles over mountain roads to a school in a nearby village.
Studying late into the night by a tiny oil lamp -- which his daughter still has -- he graduated from high school, explored theology for a couple of years and then switched to medicine at the University of Athens. After receiving his medical degree in 1939, he accepted a scholarship to the esteemed University of Leipzig in Germany.
Despite the war, despite the Nazis, despite the bombs that battered Leipzig, he made the most of his extended medical education. During his five years in Germany, he completed a specialty in eye, ear, nose and throat, another in otology and another in plastic surgery. He also found time to finish dental school.
"He made a name for himself as a young student in Germany, and he couldn't get out," said Caludis, who talked to Petropoulos on several occasions about how he managed to live among the Nazis. "He wanted to get out -- he knew what was happening -- but he couldn't."
For two months, he hid two Jewish friends in a curtained-off area in the kitchen of his tiny apartment. The dreaded knock on the door came at 3:30 one morning. Warning his friends behind the curtain to hold their breath, he was vastly relieved to learn he was being summoned by the Gestapo to treat a general's earache.
"The next day I found a friend with a small boat and watched them float away to freedom," he recalled in a family memoir. The two made their way to Switzerland.
He himself escaped through the connivance of a railroad conductor on a train to France. Although he had no ticket and no papers, the conductor waved him through. Petropoulos had operated on the man's wife two years earlier.
After studying in Brussels and Paris for three years, he made his way to the United States, where he practiced at the Episcopal Eye Ear and Throat Hospital in Washington and Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore. He also taught at Georgetown University.
After two years in the United States, he received a notice of deportation, but his professors and colleagues lobbied to keep him in the country. Congress and President Harry S. Truman responded with a rarely used bill of reciprocity, allowing him to stay.
Maintaining an eye, ear, nose and throat practice at the Pentagon from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. weekdays and out of a downtown office evenings and on Saturdays, he soon ran afoul of the law. "I was told that I allowed 'colored people' into my office and that this was illegal," he recalled years later.
In court, Petropoulos respectfully reminded the judge that he had taken an oath to administer justice to all. "I, too, have given an oath," Petropoulos said, "the Hippocratic oath to serve all who are sick."
Charges were dropped, and Petropoulos practiced medicine until 1972, when, in the words of his daughter, "he retired at gunpoint from my mom. She told him, 'We have to grow old together.' "
He remained, even in retirement, "a doctor to the whole person: physical, psychological and emotional," his daughter said. He lived what he taught, she said, not unlike another venerable Greek who observed more than two millennia ago that "the shortest and surest way to live with honor in the world is to be in reality what we would appear to be."
© 2007 The Washington Post Company